One of the most influential personalities in the history of cinema, Steven Spielberg is Hollywood’s best known director and one of the wealthiest filmmakers in the world. He has an extraordinary number of commercially successful and critically acclaimed credits to his name, either as a director, producer or writer since launching the summer blockbuster with Челюсти (1975), and he has done more to define popular film-making since the mid-1970s than anyone else. Steven Allan Spielberg was born in 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Leah Frances (Posner), a concert pianist and restaurateur, and Arnold Spielberg, an electrical engineer who worked in computer development. His parents were both born to Russian Jewish immigrant families. Steven spent his younger years in Haddon Township, New Jersey, Phoenix, Arizona, and later Saratoga, California. He went to California State University Long Beach, but dropped out to pursue his entertainment career. He gained notoriety as an uncredited assistant editor on the classic western Караван повозок (1957). Among his early directing efforts were Battle Squad (1961), which combined World War II footage with footage of an airplane on the ground that he makes you believe is moving. He also directed Escape to Nowhere (1961), which featured children as World War Two soldiers, including his sister Anne Spielberg, and The Last Gun (1959), a western. All of these were short films. The next couple of years, Spielberg directed a couple of movies that would portend his future career in movies. In 1964, he directed Firelight (1964), a movie about aliens invading a small town. In 1967, he directed Slipstream (1967), which was unfinished. However, in 1968, he directed Бредущие (1968), which featured the desert prominently, and not the first of his movies in which the desert would feature so prominently. Amblin’ also became the name of his production company, which turned out such classics as Инопланетянин (1982). Spielberg had a unique and classic early directing project, Дуэль (1971), with Dennis Weaver. In the early 1970s, Spielberg was working on TV, directing among others such series as Rod Serling’s Ночная галерея (1969), Доктор Маркус Уэлби (1969) and Лейтенант Коломбо: Murder by the Book (1971). All of his work in television and short films, as well as his directing projects, were just a hint of the wellspring of talent that would dazzle audiences all over the world. Spielberg’s first major directorial effort was Шугарлендский экспресс (1974), with Goldie Hawn, a film that marked him as a rising star. It was his next effort, however, that made him an international superstar among directors: Челюсти (1975). This classic shark attack tale started the tradition of the summer blockbuster or, at least, he was credited with starting the tradition. His next film was the classic Близкие контакты третьей степени (1977), a unique and original UFO story that remains a classic. In 1978, Spielberg produced his first film, the forgettable Я хочу держать тебя за руку (1978), and followed that effort with Подержанные автомобили (1980), a critically acclaimed, but mostly forgotten, Kurt Russell\Jack Warden comedy about devious used-car dealers. Spielberg hit gold yet one more time with Индиана Джонс: В поисках утраченного ковчега (1981), with Harrison Ford taking the part of Indiana Jones. Spielberg produced and directed two films in 1982. The first was Полтергейст (1982), but the highest-grossing movie of all time up to that point was the alien story Инопланетянин (1982). Spielberg also helped pioneer the practice of product placement. The concept, while not uncommon, was still relatively low-key when Spielberg raised the practice to almost an art form with his famous (or infamous) placement of Reese’s Pieces in “E.T.” Spielberg was also one of the pioneers of the big-grossing special-effects movies, like “E.T.” and “Close Encounters”, where a very strong emphasis on special effects was placed for the first time on such a huge scale. In 1984, Spielberg followed up “Raiders” with Индиана Джонс и Храм судьбы (1984), which was a commercial success but did not receive the critical acclaim of its predecessor. As a producer, Spielberg took on many projects in the 1980s, such as Балбесы (1985), and was the brains behind the little monsters in Гремлины (1984). He also produced the cartoon Американская история (1986), a quaint little animated classic. His biggest effort as producer in 1985, however, was the blockbuster Назад в будущее (1985), which made Michael J. Fox an instant superstar. As director, Spielberg took on the book Цветы лиловые полей (1985), with Whoopi Goldberg and Oprah Winfrey, with great success. In the latter half of the 1980s, he also directed Империя Солнца (1987), a mixed success for the occasionally erratic Spielberg. Success would not escape him for long, though. The late 1980s found Spielberg’s projects at the center of pop-culture yet again. In 1988, he produced the landmark animation/live-action film Кто подставил кролика Роджера (1988). The next year proved to be another big one for Spielberg, as he produced and directed Всегда (1989) as well as Индиана Джонс и последний крестовый поход (1989), and Назад в будущее II (1989). All three of the films were box-office and critical successes. Also, in 1989, he produced the little known comedy-drama Папа (1989), with Jack Lemmon and Ted Danson, which got mostly mixed results. Spielberg has also had an affinity for animation and has been a strong voice in animation in the 1990s. Aside from producing the landmark “Who Framed Roger Rabbit”, he produced the animated series Приключения мультяшек (1990), Озорные анимашки (1993), Пинки и Брейн (1995), Фриказоид! (1995), Pinky, Elmyra & the Brain (1998), Family Dog (1993) and Toonsylvania (1998). Spielberg also produced other cartoons such as Земля до начала времён (1988), Мы вернулись! История динозавра (1993), Каспер (1995) (the live action version) as well as the live-action version of Флинтстоуны (1994), where he was credited as “Steven Spielrock”. Spielberg also produced many Roger Rabbit short cartoons, and many Pinky and the Brain, Animaniacs and Tiny Toons specials. Spielberg was very active in the early 1990s, as he directed Капитан Крюк (1991) and produced such films as the cute fantasy Джо против вулкана (1990) and Американская история: Фивел едет на Запад (1991). He also produced the unusual comedy thriller Арахнофобия: Боязнь пауков (1990), Назад в будущее III (1990) and Гремлины 2: Новенькая партия (1990). While these movies were big successes in their own right, they did not quite bring in the kind of box office or critical acclaim as previous efforts. In 1993, Spielberg directed Парк юрского периода (1993), which for a short time held the record as the highest grossing movie of all time, but did not have the universal appeal of his previous efforts. Big box-office spectacles were not his only concern, though. He produced and directed Список Шиндлера (1993), a stirring film about the Holocaust. He won best director at the Oscars, and also got Best Picture. In the mid-90s, he helped found the production company DreamWorks, which was responsible for many box-office successes. As a producer, he was very active in the late 90s, responsible for such films as Маска Зорро (1998), Люди в чёрном (1997) and Столкновение с бездной (1998). However, it was on the directing front that Spielberg was in top form. He directed and produced the epic Амистад (1997), a spectacular film that was shorted at the Oscars and in release due to the fact that its release date was moved around so much in late 1997. The next year, however, produced what many believe was one of the best films of his career: Спасти рядового Райана (1998), a film about World War Two that is spectacular in almost every respect. It was stiffed at the Oscars, losing best picture to Влюбленный Шекспир (1998). Spielberg produced a series of films, including Эволюция (2001), Призрак дома на холме (1999) and Шрек (2001). he also produced two sequels to Парк юрского периода (1993), which were financially but not particularly critical successes. In 2001, he produced a mini-series about World War Two that definitely *was* a financial and critical success: Братья по оружию (2001), a tale of an infantry company from its parachuting into France during the invasion to the Battle of the Bulge. Also in that year, Spielberg was back in the director’s chair for Искусственный разум (2001), a movie with a message and a huge budget. It did reasonably at the box office and garnered varied reviews from critics. Spielberg has been extremely active in films there are many other things he has done as well. He produced the short-lived TV series Подводная Одиссея (1993), an anthology series entitled Удивительные истории (1985), created the video-game series “Medal of Honor” set during World War Two, and was a starting producer of Скорая помощь (1994). Spielberg, if you haven’t noticed, has a great interest in World War Two. He and Tom Hanks collaborated on Shooting War (2000), a documentary about World War II combat photographers, and he produced a documentary about the Holocaust called A Holocaust szemei (2000). With all of this to Spielberg’s credit, it’s no wonder that he’s looked at as one of the greatest ever figures in entertainment.